Rangareddy District is located in the Central Part of the Deccan Plateau and lies between 160 30′ and 180 20′ of North Latitude and 77030′ and 79030′ of East Longitudes. Medchal mandal in Rangareddy district is located around 40 km away from Hyderabad city. Mandal has total population of 68253, with 35039 females and 33214 male. Density of population in the mandal is 348 and the sex ratio is 948. According to 2011 census literacy rate of the district is at 66.20% comprising of 84% male and female 71.82% literacy rates. According to 2001 census Medchal mandal had an overall 61.59 literacy rate with 50.25% female male 72.3% 1educated. Agriculture, Business, employment in private as well as government sectors, wage labour etc. are found to be the source of income for families in this mandal. In the recent past the mandal has witnessed rapid development due to industrialization and real estate projects. As a consequence in search of employment socio-economically poor families not only from other parts of the states but also from other states also migrated and settled in and around Medchal. With respect to education facilities Medchal mandal has 39 government primary schools and 23 private un-aided schools. In case of upper primary schools 4 government schools and 10 private un –aided schools are there and 12 government high schools and 19 private un-aided high schools are running as per 2001 census records.
primary school was started in the year 1947 and upgraded as high school in 1985. Both the schools were well known for their quality of education, due to change in perceptions and attitudes of parents the enrollment in these two government schools has come down. At present primary school has 24: 1 student teacher ratio, whereas the student teacher ratio in high school is 31: 1. Both the schools have good infrastructure facilities like separate class rooms, separate toilets for girls and boys, computer lab etc. and the school management with the support of the Grampanchayat was able to get water facility. In both schools 70% of the students belong to backward classes, 28% to SC/ST and the rest 2% belong to OC category.
To improve the learning levels in government schools, the government of Andhra Pradesh has been experimenting with various policy options by setting up new schools, upgrading the existing ones, recruiting new teachers etc. Despite these facilities due to proliferation of private schools in and around the village lack of proper understanding about of quality of education majority of the parents are sending their children to private schools only, now the plethora of these two government schools is that children belonging to very poor socio-economic conditions are enrolling and continuing education as a consequence children enrollment in these schools is gown down gradually. Further most of the evaluation reports have revealed that in general at primary level the students are not achieving desired levels of proficiency and subsequently the stagnation and failure of students in higher classes is high
High school has medium of instruction both Telugu and English; whereas the students in Telugu medium stream continue in their mother tongue till the completion of the high school. However in case of English medium the students who complete their education till 5th class in Telugu medium are enrolled into English medium in 6th class, sudden change in language of instruction is leading to low attainment levels of the students.
In the rural government school context, children do not have the opportunity of attending any formal Kinder Garden schools. The Government mechanism supports for nutritional and education support of children below 6 years in Anganwadi Centres, later on the child will be enrolled into class one in the primary school. But due to change in the trends of education, after completion of 3 years parents are sending their children to nursery or kinder-garden schools run by private schools, later on students continue to study in those schools only. Since in Government Schools medium of instruction in English is available from 6th Standard/class, and where students struggle to cope up with the change in medium of instruction at that level parents prefer private English medium schools. There is huge gap with regard provision of choice to parents about medium of instruction at nursery level, the initiative is yet to be considered by the Government. The level of preparedness of the children when they enter formal schooling is one of the aspects that has emerged as a possible area of intervention. It is felt that a formal system of ‘getting the child prepared for the formal, structured school environment’ can significantly impact the learning outcome of the children not only in class1 but in the years to come.
Government in order to make students acquainted with the usage of computers, Government has provided high schools with required infrastructure. The high school of Srirangavaram village has 10 computers with batteries and generator facilities. Computers basics are taught to children. However, integration e- technologies is learning has not yet taken place due to lack of internet facility in the school. E-learning provides students and teachers with an array of choices to engage with teaching and learning around the globe.
Apart from Srirangavaram village students surrounding villages also attend high school for pursuing education. Banda Madhavaram, Madhavaram, Kummarigadda villages are located around 2 km from the Srirangavaram village, these villages do not have proper approach roads on both the sides bushes and agriculture fields are there which are not safe for Adolescent girls to walk alone. It is interesting to note that these girls are very bright in studies and they belong to Families who migrated from Maharastra 10 years ago in search of work and settle here, though these families belong to SC category they did not get caste certificate in Andhra Pradesh hence they are deprived off various government benefits meant for them.
The Global Monitoring Report 2005 highlights the importance of the quality of education provided in schools, seen in terms of the teaching – learning processes and how much pupils are learning. First of all, quality schooling, generally speaking, means higher life time incomes. By enhancing students’ cognitive skills, improved school quality directly influences their performance in the labour market and hence relates to individual earnings, greater productivity and economic growth. Increased attainment by learners also results in higher completion rates at all levels of schooling and consequent reduction in rates of repetition and drop out (Unesco 2005). Schools are also instrumental in developing desirable non-cognitive outcomes among students that may contribute healthy society such as honesty, reliability, determination, better health and social behavior etc. Apart from influencing individual productivity and income, higher school quality also has a strong impact on economic growth of countries as some studies have shown (Hanushek and Kimko 2000; Lee and Barro 2001). Thus, the quality of the labour force (as measured through mathematics and science test scores) could be regarded as an important determinant of economic growth and could have the potential to alleviate poverty.
The present the systems of educational methodology is based on CCE (Continuous comprehensive Evaluation ) model where the teacher’s role is facilitator and the learning is child centric or practical based, it triggers an all round development of the learner. It encourages all kinds of learning in life both inside the school as well as outside it. It is child-centered as it attempts to consider the learner as a unique entity for its individual pattern of development. It builds on individual child’s abilities, progress and development in achieving already set goals and objectives of education as an individual and not just his/her position in relation to other learners. Further, this helps a learner to use his/her potential in a better manner and also provides insight to the teachers to discover the methods which may be helpful to the individual learner in resolving his/her problems and difficulties. Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning process. It provides opportunities to teachers to know about their learners What they learn?, How they learn?, What type of difficulties limitations they face in realizing together? What do the children think?, What do the children feel?, What are their interests and dispositions?. Further it reduce stress on children, provide space for the teacher for creative teaching ,provide a tool of diagnosis and remediation and produce learners with greater skills. The CCD system of education is quite new to state schools and which requires students to bring learning materials them- selves.
Globalisation and employment market has forced parents and student to change their perception and priorities about education as a result new generation parents prefer to send their children to English medium schools in private sector, which has lead to proliferation of private schools in urban as well as rural areas. Perhaps often it is proved that the quality of education in these private schools is very poor compared to government schools since the purpose of establishment of such institutions is to make profits rather than serving society and quality education to students. Furthermore, in contrary to government schools where qualified and meritorious persons are recruited as teachers where as in private schools non- qualified staff are appointed as teachers as result quality of education is not at all ensured. Private schools have very high fees structure with inbuilt donations for various other purposes like building fund, corpus fund, specific occasion based funds etc. It is worthwhile to note in spite of such collections it is found that they do not provide students with good quality of education and infrastructure facilities like libraries, laboratories, play – ground for recreation and in some instances with -out proper registration with government agencies schools are run where students are barred for appearing for board examinations leave parents and students in distress.